–Warning: this contains science that’s not completely tested
Reporting by Mathew Carr
Oct. 5, 2023 — A dispute over technology ownership between two European companies shows the race to develop low-cost clean energy can get tense.
ENG8 International is claiming Biaco Ltd is “passing off” ENG8’s technology improperly as its own, according to Solomonic, which tracks litigation data. Its claim is in the Chancery division of the High Court, according to ENG8’s representative.
The technology passes electricity through water or air to create a plasma that heats up the water (or air), which is flowing through a flask (or cell) … indeed it creates levels of heat that are surprising to people, Biaco, ENG8 say. This technology isn’t entirely new. There’s a Plasma Science and Fusion Center at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for instance.
Biaco chief executive Chris Key said the company wasn’t misusing ENG8’s technology.
The plasma system is cool because it potentially creates a lot of heat from just a small amount of electricity, which is exciting to those wanting to move away from climate-damaging fossil fuels — it raises the possibility that it can create enough energy to power itself with enough left over to energize, say, a house, vehicle or city.
Further work is needed before the scalability is proved, I understand.
Indeed, it seems to be too good to be true. But is it?
Biaco tests show the following, according to its website, which is now restricted unless you sign a non-disclosure agreement:
“The Coefficient of Performance (“CoP”), being the thermal energy output divided by the electrical energy input, has been independently verified in 2020 at 1.8 times energy used. Since then, we have shown consistent CoPs in the range of 4.5 times to 6 times, the lower numbers being at low load.”
And this is potentially even more exciting:
“We took the opportunity to use a small amount of the heat generated to power a tesla turbine to produce electricity. This electricity can be used to repower the system leading to a theoretical CoP towards infinity.“
[I put “can” in bold because I’m not sure that sentence has been verified yet to a high scientific standard. Don’t make investment or trading decisions based on this post alone.]
Introducing carbonated water at the beginning of the process:
“Our contention is that we are using the gases (oxygen/hydrogen) in the water to react with nitrates and other metals in the water in the bubbles and EC [CarrZee: electro chemistry?] to create carbonate/nitrates. Effectively the process sequesters carbon and creates useful and stable solid matter (metals and carbonate). This is potentially a reversal of fossil-fuelled energy creation. The work to be done now requires closer examination of compounds and the potential reactions in the bubbles and the cells, and an energy-balance calculation.”
The ENG8 website is also intriguing. See this diagram:
My layperson reading of this (don’t hold me to it):
Some electricity is fed into the energy cell at the bottom (grey, above)
The plasma in the cell does its electro-chemical thing.
Air is pumped into the top (yellow).
Hot air comes out the top … MORE heat in energy terms vs the electricity fed via the bottom, potentially.
To be clear: this could be exciting because the higher energy output at the top could power (via a steam generator) enough for the system’s electricity input plus spare energy left over, potentially creating a model that heads toward infinity generation: CarrZee + Biaco
[I stress that this is not proved as scalable yet. Indeed, multiple people at Biaco have requested I don’t write this story just now. ENG8 folks responded Wednesday evening to a set of questions I emailed to them.]
Here are extracts of the emailed response (and I’m waiting for more):
“It is interesting to see how many government and large multinationals have conspired for decades to ‘bury’ low cost / free energy technologies and well done for having the courage to be reporting on this. [CarrZee: unverified] …
ENG8 is a business based in Gibraltar and its predecessors have been investing in catalysed fusion technology since 2017.
The catalysed fusion reactions, also referred to as Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) are produced in catalysed fusion reactors, that ENG8 call EnergiCells (trade mark).
Today, ENG8 EnergiCells are able to produce more than five times more heat or electricity than is used to power them. This technology is scalable and mass producible and could greatly assist in reducing greenhouse gas emissions globally and energy costs in the next few years. [CarrZee: I’ve not checked these claims]
…ENG8 has EnergiCells operating producing positive energy with no harmful radiation or other by-products.
ENG8’s first investment was in a cavitation reactor technology originally invented by Prof Vladimir Leonov, that uses a water cooled and fuelled catalysed fusion process for liberating energy from water.
ENG8 was in the process of establishing a UK operating company under the terms of a contract signed by its to be subsidiary [sic], EnergyNetIQ Limited, in May 2020. ENG8 lent equipment and technology to EnergyNetIQ Limited (now Biaco Limited) so they could successfully carry out an independent validation in December 2020, which showed 1.8 times more energy was released from the EnergiCell than was put in.
In February 2021 ENG8 demanded the return of its IPR and equipment as EnergyNetIQ Limited tried to change the terms of the contract after they had raised investment, trying in effect, to take over the technology business from its founders.
ENG8 owns the EnergyNetIQ trademark in the EU and in the UK (it stands for an intelligent energy network). The trademark was originally used to promote the business in the UK, until rebranding as ENG8 in 2021, as the EnergyNetIQ trademark was compromised. EnergyNetIQ Limited in the UK changed its name to Biaco Limited after ENG8 started legal proceedings against it. ENG8 still uses the EnergyNetIQ trademark in some of its European operations.
On the advice of its legal team and key investors, ENG8 decided to litigate against Biaco Limited, its directors and officers. Legal action started in July 2023 as a UK High Court action and cannot be commented on due to the active court case.
ENG8 has invested in two other catalysed fusion reaction technologies.
[Time to start selling?]
ENG8 EnergiCells are approaching a stage when the energy outputs can start to be sold and then scaled rapidly. Valeria Tyutina is leading ENG8 as the CEO, having had 25 years of experience developing and commercialising technologies, and having been a founder of the EnergiCell technology business, ENG8 since 2017.
The next independent validations will be carried out in October, and we expect to validate 5 times more electrical energy can be produced from an EnergiCell than goes in, enabling EnergiCells to be self powering, using just water as fuel.
ENG8 is focused on starting commercial energy sales in early 2024 and scaling its business as rapidly as possible to reduce greenhouse gas and energy costs, whilst protecting its very valuable IPR [intellectual property rights … [Unverified]…[response continues after heading below]
[Haslen Back of ENG8 and Chris Key of Biaco were once colleagues and have now apparently fallen out]
Haslen Back was a director of a number of companies that provided support to the founders of the EnergiCell technologies since 2017. At the start of the Covid19 pandemic he was stuck in Russia at the founders laboratory. As Russia closed its borders for months, during this time a couple of the companies he was a director of had their credit facilities called in … He was not able to provide the Insolvency Service with the information needed as the facilities his companies rented in the UK were cleared during his stranding in Russia so as a result, he was issued a directorship ban for seven years.
Haslen is not a director of ENG8 although he continues to still assist the development of the business as a consultant as he is passionate about bringing the very the beneficial effects of this technology to humanity and is hopefully to stave off many of the negative effects of the current energy crisis and energy industry as a whole.
Comments can be attributed to Valeria Tyutina, CEO at ENG8.
… [Here is a website for convenience] … https://350ppm.co.uk/new-video-on-eng8-international-ltd-catalyzed-fusion-achieves-q-value-of-2-4-thermal-and-2-0-electricity/
Response ends here.
(There’s more to come on this story; Look at these documents below and email me at email@example.com or msg via socials, letting me know what you think.)
This is a cool Biaco snip:
See if you can click on this: https://vimeo.com/851317930/d3e522b030
Biaco Update August 2023 (from website)
We have been asked by interested parties to summarise the scientific understanding. Please see below an explanation [spelling fixed] of Biaco’s current contentions.
Biaco Energy Cell
Since 2020 Biaco has successfully trialled and developed an Energy Cell (“EC”) which is producing high grade heat (between 110°C and 340°C as a function of pressure) from a stainless steel vessel. Inputs being water and HV electricity.
The Coefficient of Performance (“CoP”), being the thermal energy output divided by the electrical energy input, has been independently verified in 2020 at 1.8 times energy used. Since then, we have shown consistent CoPs in the range of 4.5 times to 6 times, the lower numbers being at low load.
The Physical Process and Scientific Understanding
The Energy Cell
The EC is a pressurised vessel through which normal tap water flows at varying PSI and flow rates. A high voltage current passes through the EC, creating a plasma field in the water. The water is continuously refreshed and exits as high temperature steam.
We have observed that the formation of micro bubbles is a precursor to plasma formation and is where the plasma occurs once started. The contents of the water are a mixture of steam, and gases previously dissolved in the water (eg air, CO2). Significant pressures and temperatures exist within the bubbles, as the change of state(s) and the HV current increase both pressure and temperature, as the cavitation of the water by the bubbles limits short-duration volume growth.
The water cavitates as the bubbles form in it. The non-Newtonian nature of the liquid surrounding the bubbles means that for their short life they do not grow. As a consequence, the energy entering the gas contained in the bubbles leads to extremely high temperatures and pressures. Energy in the energised ions does not exit the bubble as a wave or convection but as photons. This emission of light energy begins with the initiation of the plasma. This process, photoluminescence, we believe is the reason why the outer wall of the cell reaches such high temperatures within 5 minutes. The heating of the stainless vessel leads to heating of the water within the EC, causing energy to exit the EC as high pressure steam.
· No emissions are measured outside the cell (which captures the light emitted) other than background radiation.
· Positive energy only continues if the water is refreshed.
· Higher levels of dissolved gases (eg CO2 or air) and/or impurities increase the levels of activation.
· Spectroscopy shows that Carbon/Hydrogen and Oxygen are being consumed in the plasma.
· The PH of the water on exit is lower than the PH of the water on entry to the cell, suggesting that the water has become more acidic as the carbonate has been precipitated out (see below).
From observation we have seen that gases such as CO2 and impurities are important to the process.
· The process doesn’t work with degassed water – and stops if the water is not refreshed.
· Introducing carbonated water at the start of the process greatly helped the formation of plasma.
The analysis of the output deposits shows that a precipitate of iron is being formed. Professor Atkins observed, and made the initial contention, that gases and impurities were being used to “fuel” the process, and sought assistance from the University of Sussex to help understand the chemistry. As a result, a collaboration partnership between the University of Sussex and Biaco is being formed, with a target commencement date of October 2023.
After initial consultation with Professor(s) John Turner and Mark Bagley, our contention is that we are using the gases (oxygen/hydrogen) in the water to react with nitrates and other metals in the water in the bubbles and EC [CarrZee: electro chemistry?] to create carbonate/nitrates. Effectively the process sequesters carbon and creates useful and stable solid matter (metals and carbonate). This is potentially a reversal of fossil-fuelled energy creation. The work to be done now requires closer examination of compounds and the potential reactions in the bubbles and the cells, and an energy balance calculation.
[defo more examination needed]
The theoretical energy available by converting the energy flowing through the cell contained within the water is 3 million kiloJoules per hour (over 800 KWh versus the 60 kWh of thermal heat created). However we do not know the amount of water converted by the plasma field or the level of other gases in the water. So at present it is not possible to do a theoretical energy balance.
Some of this is “known science”, including the capture of carbon dioxide during an electro chemical process, and there are publications available on :-
· Cavitation at high pressure
· Isomer changes in water.
· The phenomenon of additional heat generation in pressurised liquids in electric fields.
· Carbon Dioxide capture and electrochemical conversion.
In 2020 Biaco had our Energy Cell independently verified by Professor Robert Morgan who reported that, depending on the flow and pressure at the time of measurement, we were achieving a Coefficient of Performance of between 1.5 to 1.8.
Following this verification, the system has been continually improved, leading to the completion of a successful series of demonstrations and testing in the first quarter of 2023 – when we ran a series of viewed tests at a CoP above 5. The longest run being over 4 hours.
Demonstration on 8th August 2023
Visitors to Albourne on 8th August could see the progress made since the first quarter of the year. We have redesigned the supporting rig and control system to allow for:-
· new ultra clear glass windows allowing for the first time very clean video recording of the process including the formation of gas bubbles and cavitation.
· measurement of the chemistry of the water on input and the chemistry of the water on output.
· interactive tuning of the main inputs – voltage, current, water flow, and pressure.
· full recording and immediate display of performance – heat – flow and pressure.
· new electronic control system and one-switch development.
· ability to recirculate water and to control both flow and gas level.
· we have also built a full demonstration set of a simple hot water system for a kitchen and room heating.
· measurements can be taken at every stage of the process.
What was demonstrated on the day
· The video below shows the start of the process and in particular the creation of gas bubbles. A full video is available of the entire two and a half hours. This section of the video (the start up) is interesting as we can observe the creation of bubbles and the plasma starting. Plasma starts after 20 secs, which then ran continuously.
· Coefficient of performance was between 4.5 to 5.5 with a flow level of 12 gm/sec of water.
· The graph below shows the recorded output over the period of demonstration.
· The domestic heating system powered by the output of the EC of high temperature steam at 200°C showed a very rapid increase in heat in the hot water tank. Reaching > 50°C within 30 minutes. We continually demonstrated the speed of heating by emptying and refilling the tank with cold water every 30 minutes.
We took the opportunity to use a small amount of the heat generated to power a tesla turbine to produce electricity. This electricity can be used to repower the system leading to a theoretical CoP towards infinity.
· We demonstrated the compressor and heat exchangers showing how our recovery system can work with a potential recovery of 70%.
· We demonstrated the creation of gas bubbles and the plasma created.
· We demonstrated the change in PH caused by the process.
The caveats are :-
· We have yet to install a new water flow control system which will even out flows at low volumes. We could therefore be showing a 10% over-statement of flow at low volumes. Also the flow was ragged at the beginning of the test, reducing efficiency.
· The system was demonstrated without insulation, “unlagged”. This reduces efficiency by 15-20%
· We estimate we lose about 10% of electricity in conversion to High Voltage.
· Successful demonstration with minimal supervision of a 3 hour run.
· CoP was around 5x – visible performance of plasma and bubble creation. 5 xis an important KPI as any performance over 3x allows the system to be developed to create its own electricity needed to continue in operation. At this stage we can say that the CoP level tends towards infinity.
· Excess electricity and heat can of course be used to create extraordinary value.
· PH level change and participate produced. This suggests a chemical change is occurring which underpins our contention that the gases in water are being used by the process to fuel the plasma.
· First demonstration of a small amount of electricity production.
· Continued production of high temperature steam during the three hours.
· Hot water tank repetitively heated within 30 minutes.
· Need to replace current water flow system with new stepper pump.
· Continue work on pressure seals and electrode bushings.
IP & Patents: Energy from Non Newtonian Liquids
Biaco has developed systems and patents supporting the Energy Cell to create its own technical field in water and other non-Newtonian liquids. The table below shows progress on IP:-
Patent (being extended to 12 major countries by Aug 2023)
Grandfather patent on Energy Cell. Heating Systems and Methods*
A N Other – further work on gases and efficiency
Jan and Feb Tests: Biaco
February 22, 2023
We had a very successful two days of testing and demonstrations to Investors and Partners at the end of January and the beginning of February.
We ran sustained tests and demos in January and February.
We saw strong performance which saw some peak running at over 7 times. After heavily discounting the results for all potential energy input (such as the small amounts used for pumping and pressurisation) we are happy to confirm that we were over 5 times for the tests.
These will be formally audited in March but were observed and applauded by over 40 interested Investors and Partners,